Environment and Health

It is widely acknowledged that unsustainable transport comes with a price. Cities’ failure to develop sustainable urban transport systems contributes to a poor environment and has negative impacts on the health of city dwellers. The excessive use of fossil fuels degrades the environment on the global, regional, and local level. Apart from air pollution, automobiles cause accidents which, in many cases, cause immeasurable losses to victims‘ families.

This theme provides information on how to address the above issues through modules authored by experts who are involved these issues around the world. The modules facilitate a transfer of information and experience which in many cases could be replicated elsewhere. It also includes a module providing details on the development of a Carbon Development Mechanism methodology, which can provide an additional source of revenue for urban transport improvements.

Sourcebook Modules:


5a. Air Quality Management
(Dietrich Schwela, World Health Organisation)
This module serves to assist policy-makers and their advisers in developing countries to determine the best measures to abate air pollution with limited information. It provides advice on developing legally enforceable air quality standards and simplified clean air implementation plans. The module explains basic concepts of air pollution, sources and types of pollution, major pollutants, WHO and other standards, air quality monitoring, air quality management plans, and emissions inventories. It also briefly introduces topics such as air quality modelling and economic valuation of the health impacts of air pollution.
Download here: English tiếng Việt


5b. Urban Road Safety
(Jacqueline Lacroix, DVR; David Silcock, GRSP)
Road traffic crashes result in around 800,000 deaths annually. A disproportionate number are in developing countries, with the victims often being pedestrians and cyclists. This module describes how road safety is organised at a city government level, how it is assessed (including the use of tools such as road crash diagrams), how safer road environments can be created, and the importance of public awareness, enforcement, safer vehicles, and sound financing.
Download here: English 中国 Español tiếng Việt


5c. Noise and its Abatement
(Civic Exchange Hong Kong; GTZ; UBA)
Noise is emerging as an insidious problem in developing cities, even though it is not currently perceived as a major problem. A major source of noise in cities is urban road transport. This module introduces basic concepts of measuring noise, describes its health effects, provides recommended noise level standards, and outlines six key policy areas where governments can take action in transport to reduce this problem.
Download here: English 中国 Español


5d. The CDM in the transport sector
(Jürg M. Grütter, grütter consulting)
Since the advent of Kyoto Protocol in 2005, many countries, both developed and developing, have embraced the concept of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in order to reduce their carbon emissions. CDM, an innovative strategy introduced by the Kyoto Protocol, is related to projects in developing countries aimed to reduce GHG’s which are sold to countries mostly in the developed world. This module discusses the viability of sustainable transport projects to be qualified under the CDM mechanism which will thereby benefit from GHG offset sales. The module also presents a case study on Bogotá’s BRT system TransMilenio, the first officially registered CDM project for transport.
Download here: English 中国 Español Português


5e Transport and Climate Change
(Holger Dalkmann and Charlotte Brannigan)
The module summarises the challenges that climate change mitigation has to face in the transport sector and presents the major options and instruments to deal with them. The module is a comprehensive summary of sustainable transport policy options and sketches out their potential for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. The module draws on the existing sourcebook modules and thus offers both a comprehensive overview and a thematic entry point to the whole sourcebook. To ease access to more detailed information, the module includes many references to the other sourcebook modules. The authors, Holger Dalkmann and Charlotte Brannigan, work at the Centre for Sustainability (C4S) at the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), UK.
Download here: English 中国 Español Bahasa Indonesia Український


5f Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change
(Urda Eichhorst)
Many transport decision-makers in developing countries are already confronted with extreme weather events, such as flooding, subsidence, and storms, all of which are expected to increase with climate change. In the worst case, transportation systems may not be able to recover between such events, resulting in exponential damages. This module of the GTZ Sourcebook for Decision-Makers in Developing Cities is intended to raise awareness and describes the expected impacts of climate change on urban passenger transport as well as possible adaptation measures.
Download here: English 中国 Español


5g Urban Transport and Health
(Carlos Dora, Jamie Hosking, Pierpaolo Mudu, Elaine Ruth Fletcher)
This module, written by a team of World Health Organization (WHO) experts using the most up-to-date data available, illustrates the pathways through which urban transportation affects human health. It provides information about instruments to assess the health impacts – or benefits – of transport projects and policies. The Module also outlines policies for healthy transport, and shows how these can yield important co-benefits with regard to other principles of sustainable transportation (e.g. GHG mitigation). Best practices from around the world inform the reader how cities have managed to improve the health and quality of life of their citizens.
Download here: English Español

5h size

5h Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency
(Susanne Böhler-Baedeker and Hanna Hüging)
Considering the challenges of limited oil resources, increasing energy prices, climate change, environmental pollution, and health risks, it is essential to establish an efficient transport system that meets demand, but consumes as little energy as possible. This Sourcebook Module serves as a navigator for decision makers and stakeholders, including local and national authorities, the private sector, and non-governmental organisations. It provides a comprehensive overview of measures and policies designed to promote greater energy efficiency in transport and assigns specific tasks and responsibilities to particular parties. Case studies illustrate international experiences in implementing measures to increase energy efficiency in transport. 88-pages, full-colour.
Download here: English

Technical Documents:

5. Accessing Climate Finance
Accessing Climate Finance for Sustainable Transport: A Practical Overview
(Anne Binsted, Daniel Bongardt, Holger Dalkmann, and ko Sakamoto)
GIZ together with the Bridging the Gap Initiative has developed a practical guide for developing countries‘ governments on how to access climate funds for sustainable land transport interventions. The guidance focuses on climate change mitigation and introduces existing and proposed sources of climate finance in the context of the land transport sector. It intends to reduce the financial barriers to the development and implementation of sustainable climate change mitigation transport strategies by outlining the climate finance available in the transport sector.
Download here: EN
6. Beyond the Fossil City
Beyond the Fossil City: Towards low Carbon Transport and Green Growth
(Daniel Bongardt, Manfred Breithaupt, and Felix Creutzig)
Transport is a fast growing sector. A steadily increasing motorisation along with urbanisation is a trend that can be observed in most developing countries. This combined with the oil dependence of the transport sector lead to considerable growth rates of carbon emissions. Actions to stop this trend are urgently needed. This paper shows how national and/or urban low-carbon transportation policies could help countries achieve smart, sustainable economic growth while at the same time stabilizing and later reducing transport emissions. Sustainable Development Policies and Measures in the transport sector include a variety of co-benefits, e.g. reduced air pollution, social equity, and economic development. In the context of the global economic crisis, such measures promote economic growth and social stability and can also be implemented at reasonable costs. (28 Pages)
Download here: EN PT

External Links:

Urban Transport and Health
Reading List: Urban Transport and Health
Low Carbon Transport
Reading List: Low Carbon Transport

Clean Air Initiative
Site established in early 2004 with strong coverage of vehicle and fuel and AQM resources, especially in Asia and Latin America.

EUROPA – Transport
Transport site of the European Commission. Information on EC activities and programs, White / Green Papers, all modes.

Healthier Environment through the Abatement of Vehicle Emissions and Noise (European focus).

The National Transportation Library
Large range of transport resources, from US Dept. of Transport.

Air Quality Archive (UK related content)
This site was developed by NETCEN, part of AEA Technology Environment, on behalf of the UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs and the Devolved Administrations

Walsh CarLines
Information on motor vehicle emissions and related subjects.

California Air Resources Board, land use and air quality
Part of the California Environmental Protection Agency.

Delhi Traffic Police, India
Delhi traffic police site, stressing safety issues.

DVR – Deutscher Verkehrssicherheitsrat
German Road Safety Council (material in German and English).

The Bremen Initiative
A global platform for all local business-municiality partnership programmes and projects aiming at sustainable development.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Many resources, particularly strong on AQM. Also advocacy, fuels, TDM, and global warming resources.

EPA – Office of Transportation and Air Quality
Provides regulators with information on transport incentive-based programs, partnership opportunities, grant sources, and technical assistance (US focus).

The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC)
An international non-governmental organisation working on road safety in Europe.

Global Road Safety Partnership (GRSP)
A global partnership between business, civil society, and governmental organizations collaborating to improve road safety conditions.

IIHS/HLDI: Crash Testing & Highway Safety
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Research focuses on countermeasures aimed factors in motor vehicle crashes (human, vehicular, and environmental).

Driver Safety (National Safety Council)
Road safety issues focusing on drivers, US-oriented.

Thailand Pollution Control Department (PCD)
Most resources are in Thai language.

World Health Organization
Extensive information on all technical aspects of environmental health (including air pollution) and WHO guidelines for various pollutants.