Institutional and Policy Orientation

This theme focuses on the institutional and policy set-ups necessary for a successful sustainable transport agenda in a city. The great importance of political will and the considerable input needed from local and national governments when developing such policies, is a key issue. Sourcebook Modules on this theme present case studies of successful stories in terms of their overall implementation while providing details on specific institutional arrangements which have made sustainable policies possible. They also provide a clear perspective on the institutions generally involved in developing sustainable transport policies.

Sourcebook Modules:

1a. The Role of Transport in Urban Development Policy
(Enrique Peñalosa)
This module sets out a ‘new vision’ of urban transport for developing cities. Written by former mayor Enrique Peñalosa, it draws from the recent experience of Bogotá, Colombia and shows how basic problems of urban transport are more political rather than technical. Dr. Axel Friedrich (Umweltbundesamt) contributes to the module, explaining practical working mechanisms to help a city work from conceptual stages through to implementation.
Download here: English 中国 Español
1b. Urban Transport Institutions
(Richard Meakin)
This module presents an analysis of urban transport institutional successes and failures in developing cities. It considers several in-depth case studies in a range of countries, explaining how institutional shortcomings have arisen and manifested. The module draws conclusions from the case studies in the form of recommended policy approaches required for effective urban transport institutions.
Download here: English 中国 Español Român
1c. Private Sector Participation in Urban Transport Infrastructure Provision
(Chris Zegras, MIT)
This module describes benefits and pitfalls of private sector participation (PSP). It provides detailed case studies of PSP in a range of developing countries and concludes with some carefully considered policy recommendations for developing cities. The module emphasises that PSP in urban transport infrastructure provision should happen in the context of achieving wider mobility and access objectives, and not as an end in itself.
Download here: English 中国 Español
1d. Economic Instruments
(Manfred Breithaupt, GTZ)
One of the best ways to influence travel behaviour is through economic instruments. This module surveys successful experiences on fuel and vehicle taxes, road pricing and other instruments, showing that a range of often under-utilised policy options exists for developing cities. The module shows how economic instruments can work toward multiple goals, generating revenues and reducing congestion while improving air quality.
Download here: English 中国 Español
1e. Rising Public Awareness about Sustainable Urban Transport
(Carlosfelipe Pardo, GTZ)
Public awareness, support and information campaigns are crucial to the formulation and implementation of any sustainable transport policy in developing cities. Key components of carrying out a cost-effective initiative to raise public awareness about sustainable transport include determining a target audience, developing a strategic approach, and establishing an effective “Working Group” (with a case study on Bicycle User Groups). It is complemented by a training document on public awareness and behaviour change.
Download here: English 中国 Español Bahasa Indonesia
1f. Financing Sustainable Urban Transport
(Ko Sakamoto, TRL)
Urban transport has historically not received the attention, careful planning, and financial support it deserves in order to function in a sustainable manner. As a step to address this issue, this new GTZ Sourcebook module provides detailed information on available options for financing urban transport. It presents different financing instruments, the ways in which they can be best used, and how to optimally combine them. This module is dedicated to policy makers, financial sector specialists, and urban planners/practitioners working on key challenges related to financing urban transport systems. The sourcebook provides options to close the gap between the ever growing demand for efficient, equitable, and environmentally friendly urban transport systems on one hand, and dwindling financial resources available to state and local authorities on the other.
Download here: English 中国 Español Bahasa Indonesia Português
1g. Urban Freight in Developing Cities
(Bernhard O. Herzog)
This GTZ Sourcebook module describes the importance of freight transportation in the context of urban development and provides detailed information on available options to meet current and future challenges for urban goods transport in rapidly growing cities of the developing world. The module has been written by Bernhard O. Herzog, expert in the field of freight operation and fleet-management with more than 30 years of experience in the field of transport planning and logistics. The publication contains 62 fully illustrated pages, 51 figures, 19 boxes, and 8 tables. Additionally it provides further reading and links on additional aspects of urban freight.
Download here: English 中国 Español

Training Documents:

public awareness and behavior change
Public awareness and behaviour change
(Carlos F. Pardo)
This document focuses on the importance of awareness and the necessary tools to initiate a change in the behaviour of the stakeholders for a sustainable transport system. Further, the document explains the various surveying methods for proper data collection. These tools will help planners and professionals in charge of communication of transport projects to diffuse information regarding new transport projects or initiatives to change travel behaviour of citizens.
Download here: EN ES
Negotiating the Deal Rea Vaya
Case Study: Negotiating the Deal to enable the first Rea Vaya bus operating company
Number 7 in the series of case studies, this document deals with the transition process from informal paratransit services to a full-scale BRT scheme in Johannesburg, South Africa. It provides a rare, detailed insight in the complicated but successful negotiations between the City of Johannesburg and representatives of more than 300 individual minibus-taxi owners. The Case Study outlines the enormous challenges in bringing together the interests of public bodies and paratransit operators faced with a radical change to their business models and possible income losses. Further, it shares some of the lessons learned by the City of Johannesburg’s negotiations team in the process that may be useful to other cities transforming their public transport networks, with the participation of affected public transport operators.
Download here: EN

Technical Documents:

4. Transport Alliances
Transport Alliances – Promoting Cooperation and Integration to offer a more attractive and efficient Public Transport
(Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmen e.V. (VDV), VDV-Förderkreis e.V.)
This report summarises the development of the German public transport alliance system, the so called Verkehrsverbund, that is often regarded as the first and most successful form of integrated transport in the world. It offers information on aspects ranging from institutional issues to best practices in introducing an integrated fare system. This document also looks at transport alliances in the neighbouring country of Switzerland. The publication contains 130 fully illustrated pages, 70 figures, and 9 tables. Additionally it provides further reading and links on additional aspects of public transport alliances and public transport integration.
Download here: EN RU
7. Sustainable Transport Evaluation
Sustainable Transport Evaluation
(Daniel Bongardt, Dominik Schmidt, Cornie Huizenga and Todd Litman)
On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU), GIZ has reviewed existing evaluation schemes for sustainability in the transport sector to determine which are most appropriate for sustainable transport planning and policy purposes on an international level. The analysis concludes that there is currently no sustainable transport evaluation process that is mature enough for processes such as the UN Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD). The study therefore outlines options for choosing appropriate indicators and evaluation schemes, and proposes a working plan for starting an evaluation process within the CSD 18/19 framework. It also summarizes the benefits of an evaluation scheme not only for national and local governments, but also for donors and the scientific community. This 42 page document is authored by Mr. Daniel Bongardt, Mr. Dominik Schmidt, Mr. Cornie Huizenga, and Mr. Todd Litman
Download here: EN
8. Raising Automobile Dependency
Raising Automobile Dependency: How to Break the Trend?
(Santhosh Kodukula)
Developing cities are facing a crisis of increasing automobiles and their consequences such as reduced air quality, road safety, and economic loss. Citing the current conditions and drawing upon best practices from various cities, this document addresses the issue of rising automobile dependency. This document was also presented as a background paper for the 6th Regional Environmentally Sustainable Transport (EST) Forum held in Delhi during 4-6 December 2011. The document was authored by Mr. Santhosh Kodukula, Urban Transport Specialist of the GIZ Sustainable Urban Transport Project and reviewed by peers in the sector. The document is 50 pages long with examples from Zurich, Switzerland; Copenhagen, Denmark; Muenster and Freiburg, Germany; and Curitiba, Brazil.
Download here: EN
10. Fighting Corruption
Fighting Corruption in the Road Transport Sector
(Niklas Sieber)
Corruption is a huge challenge for the transportation sector. It causes economic losses and leads to deteriorating infrastructure and reduced quality of transport services. The new Technical Document #10 “Fighting corruption in the road transport sector” explains what corruption is and why it is so detrimental for the economy and society. It gives tips on how corruption in the transport sector may be detected, and what can be done to prevent corruption in the transport sector. This issue concerns not only the public and private sector, but civil society in general which may play a crucial role in “blowing the whistle” on corruption. Donors and international organisations are also offered advice on how to support the fight against corruption as a part of their cooperation with developing countries.
Download here: EN
11. Transport Elasticities
Transport Elasticities: Impacts on Travel Behaviour
(Todd Litman)
Understanding transport demand and transport elasticities is crucial to support sustainable travel behaviour. The new GIZ-SUTP Technical Document #11 “Transport Elasticities: Impact on Travel Behaviour” explains the key factors affecting travel demand and its responsiveness. The aim of the paper is to help understand travel demand and to provide practical orientation on how travel behaviour can be improved. The document introduces the concept of transport elasticity and provides an overview of the key transport elasticities. More sustainable travel patterns can be achieved through the implementation of effective policy measures that influence the responsiveness of travel demand to various transport options.
Download here: EN

External Links:

Informal Public Transport
Reading List: Informal Public Transport
Public Transport Integration
Reading List: Public Transport Integration
Financing Sustainable Urban Transport
Reading List: Financing Sustainable Urban Transport

EU transport policies aim to foster clean, safe, and efficient travel throughout Europe, supporting the internal market of goods and the right of citizens to travel freely throughout the EU.

World Car Free Days collaborative

National Transportation Library, USA
A large range of transport resources, from US Dept. of Transport

World Bank Transport Forum

World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review

Wuppertal Institute

Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen
German Federal Highway Research Institute

Center for the Study of Urban Planning, Transport and Public Facilities
CERTU is a French technical services agency under the Ministry of Public Works, Transportation, and Housing.

Fundación Ciudad Humana
Es una Fundación sin ánimo de lucro que promueve la construcción participativa de ciudades sostenibles donde el centro de reflexión y acción sea lo humano.

Co-financed by the EU, promoting sustainable transport pilot projects in 19 European cities

Disabled Persons Transport Advisory Committee
This website provides comprehensive information on its role in advising the UK government on the transport needs of disabled people.

HongKong SAR Government Website
Includes links to transport and environment sites and information about institutional arrangements and bus service franchising.

Externalities of Energy
A research project of the EC, evaluates the external costs associated with a range of different fuel cycles.

Global Ideas Bank
Includes resources on Curitiba’s Success

Urbannet- Network for Decentralisation and Municipal Development
URBANET is the network for GTZ staff, associated professionals, and researchers working in the fields of municipal and urban development, decentralisation, and regionalisation.

Land Transport Authority – Singapore
Information on MRT, licensing, road construction, and details of pricing schemes.

OECD Transportation
OECD’s work on transport covers a broad set of activities directed at providing input to policy debate on current and emerging issues.

Bureau of Transportation Studies (USA)
Website that provides US transportation statistics

Smart Communities Network – Energy Smart Communities
Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development is a US Dept. of Energy program. Provides links to mobility management resources and others.

Zurich Mobility Strategy

Supporting Documents related to Institutional and Policy Orientation
SUTP resource

Transmilenio S.A.
World class BRT system in Bogotá, Colombia

Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources
Transport is part of the Department of Infrastructure, Energy, and Resources. To find out more about the Department, visit the website

United Nations Human Settlements Program
UN-HABITAT is the United Nations agency for human settlements.

Danish Road Directorate
Mission is to manage the national roads, which carry almost 30% of the total transport volume in Denmark. Insight into road transport conditions benefits all of Danish society

World Bank
The World Bank completed its Urban Transport Strategy Review in 2001. This document, Cities on the Move, presents the World Bank’s strategy for supporting sustainable urban transport options.