Land use management and travel demand management may be the most difficult topics to realize in sustainable urban transport. At the same time they may generate the greatest benefits since they address the structural reasons that affect how people move in a city. The modules in this theme describe how the traditional “predict and provide” principles do not solve transport problems. They detail how specific interventions in land use regulation and instruments of managing mobility are much more effective in the long run economically, socially, and environmentally.
2a. Land Use Planning and Urban Transport
(Rudolf Petersen, Wuppertal Institute)
Which cities have succeeded in establishing land use patterns which support more environmentally-friendly and efficient modes of transit, walking, and cycling? What are the benefits of better land use planning for developing cities? What are the key components of a successful land use and transport planning program in a developing city? How should urban transport and land use be organised? What can developing cities do to address increasing problems of urban sprawl and automobile dependency? This module addresses all of these questions and provides policy recommendations, with several case studies from developing cities.
(Todd Litman, VTPI)
Mobility management, otherwise known as transport demand management or travel demand management (TDM), aims to make the best use of existing infrastructure by managing the demand for transport. The starting point for mobility management is the concept that a city’s transport system should focus on moving people and goods, rather than vehicles. This differs from the approach currently being taken in many developing cities, which is supply-oriented and involves ever-increasing road building. This module provides a wide range of policy tools in mobility management for developing cities, ranging from ‘smart growth’ to parking to sustainable tourism and commuter reduction programs.
(Tom Rye, Edinburgh Napier University)
Poor parking management or unregulated parking results in traffic congestion, disruption of the usability and aesthetics of urban spaces, corruption, hinderance of pedestrian access and movement, safety concerns, inequitable usage of road space, etc. Parking controls and pricing are transport demand management measures implemented frequently by local authorities, yet little of the academic literature deals with experience of this policy, preferring instead to concentrate on the politically “more lucrative” topic of congestion charging. This module attempts to redress that balance a little. It discusses the various definitional, operational, planning, institutional, and social challenges around parking practices in cities, and how these could be overcome. The module also discusses topics like types of marking, parking demand, and common myths associated with vehicle parking.
(Andrea Broaddus, Todd Litman and Gopinath Menon)
Increased economic growth, coupled with a resulting increase in motorisation in recent years, has created greater congestion than has ever been seen in the world. Solutions to these problems are possible through improvement of conditions of public transport and conditions for pedestrians and bicycle users, as well as in the implementation of measures which promote a rational use of the automobile. In that sense, Transportation Demand Management (TDM) aims to maximize the efficiency of the urban transport system using a wide range of measures, including Congestion Pricing, Public Transport Improvement, Promoting Non-motorised Transport, Fuel Taxation, and Parking Management. This document presents an overview on international practices and approaches and supports the design of a TDM strategy.
(Jonathan Gómez Vilchez)
This study indicates the characteristics of commuting and offers an alternative approach to meet the mobility needs of employees. Through mobility management (MM) measures, firms can improve the commuting experience of their employees. Examples of best practice in German firms are provided. The paper shows how firms play a role in promoting sustainable urban mobility. These examples can be replicated by firms in developing countries. The document is 30 pages long with full colour pictures.
This paper tells the story of how an elevated expressway was demolished and the Chenggyecheon River was restored in South Korea’s capital city, Seoul. The paper highlights the importance of political will and visionary leadership to make things possible. The paper also highlights Seoul’s commitment to improving its public transport system through commendable bus reforms in the city. The paper concludes with lessons that could be learned from Seoul’s sustainable transport policy.
The publication is a joint case study by GIZ and the Korea Transport Institute (KOTI). The document is 18 pages long with full colour pictures.
“If we build it, they will come”: The question of induced travel demand attracts substantial interest from decision-makers, planners and the wider public alike. This technical document is intended as an introduction to the concept of induced travel demand and the principal arguments and debates surrounding the phenomenon. The module has been written by Roger Gorham, a leading researcher in the field, in an effort to provide greater knowledge to the policy makers on issues related to sustainable urban transport.
Homes and Communities – US Dept. of Housing and Urban Development
Housing policy in the US
Büro für integrierte Verkehrsplanung und Stadtentwicklung
Office for Integrated Traffic Planning and Urban Development (German language)
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau- und Stadtentwicklung
The German Ministry of Transport, Building, and Housing (Some resources in English)
Congress for the New Urbanism
A professional organization and information resource for the New Urbanism community planning
Environmental Defense Fund
US non-profit organization representing more than 300,000 members
IPPUC – Curitiba Urban Planning and Research Institute
Explains how the Curitiba success story emerged
Institute for Transport and Development Policy
An international NGO, based in New York and active in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.
Center for Livable Communities
The LGC provides a forum and technical assistance to local governments for creating liveable communities.
PGN – Planungsgruppe Nord
A soceity for city and traffic planning
American Planning Association
Extensive resources for community and transport planning
Royal Town Planning Institute
Town planning resources
Sierra Club Home Page: Explore, Enjoy, and Protect the Planet
Campaigns include sprawl and global warming.
Smart Growth Online, Sustainable Communities Network
The SCN advocates land use policy reforms. This site contains a large resource database on land use subjects.
Sprawlwatch Clearing House
Land use and mobility management resources (US-based)
Sustainable Communities Network
Promotes liveable communities
Surface Transport Policy Project
STPP’s areas of activity include health & safety, social equity & liveability, the economy, and energy use & environmental protection. (US-based)
Urban Land Institute
Non-profit education and research institute
Municipal Land Management in Asia: A comparative study
Case studies of Bandung, Dhaka, Hue, Kandy, Makati, and Penang.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute
An independent research organisation working on a wide range of sustainable transportation issues (based in Canada)