Transit, Walking, and Cycling

One large component of sustainable urban transport is the promotion and enhancement of modes that are friendly to the environment, people, and economy. Such modes are public transport, walking, and cycling. The latter two are collectively called non-motorised transport. A greater modal share of these sustainable modes directly implies reduced air-pollution and traffic congestion, clean and safe cities, and improved liveability. Hence, this theme provides the basic material that is required for policy-makers to make sustainable choices for their city transport.

Sourcebook Modules:

3a. Mass Transit Options
(Lloyd Wright; Karl Fjellstrom)
Choices about a mass rapid transit system are choices about a city’s future. This module surveys mass transit systems around the world, and compares the different systems according to key parameters such as cost, construction time, environmental impacts, poverty impacts, speed, passenger capacity, and so on. It concludes that although there is no single mass transit solution, for most developing cities Bus Rapid Transit may be the best option. It is complemented by a Training Course on Mass Transit.
Download here: English 中国 Español Bahasa Indonesia Român tiếng Việt


3b. Bus Rapid Transit
(Lloyd Wright)
Bus rapid transit is a remarkable new phenomenon in the world of transit. This module provides practical guidance on how a developing city can plan, finance, design, and implement a world class Bus Rapid Transit system. As a planning template for developing cities, this module can drastically reduce planning and consultancy costs which a developing city would otherwise incur in developing a BRT system. This module is complemented by the Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide (click here for information on the BRT Planning Guide) which goes into depth in all planning issues of a BRT system.
Download here: English Español Bahasa Indonesia 한국의 tiếng Việt

3b size

3c. Bus Regulation & Planning
(Richard Meakin)
This module provides direction to developing cities on how to break out of a low quality, high-risk, low profit, low investment spiral in which so many urban bus systems in the developing world are now caught. It introduces and outlines the concept of an annual planning cycle, and shows how developing cities can improve bus systems from the viewpoints of operators, drivers, regulators, and passengers. It is complemented by the Training Course on Bus Regulation and Planning – Bus Sector Reform.
Download here: English Español Bahasa Indonesia 한국의 Român ภาษาไทย tiếng Việt


3d. Preserving and Expanding the Role of Non-motorised Transport
(Walter Hook, ITDP)
This module starts by outlining the benefits of non-motorised transport (NMT). It considers the different forms of regulation to which NMT is subjected, and describes the non-motorised transport planning process and the steps involved, drawing from an example pilot study conducted in Surabaya. Successful measures in cities such as Bogotá and various European cities are described with the intention of applying them in developing cities. It is complemented by a training course on Non-motorized transport and a Handbook on Cycling-Inclusive Policy Development.
Download here: English 中国 Español


3e. Car-free Development
(Lloyd Wright)
Automobile dependency resulting in decreasing quality of life is becoming a common phenomenon in developing cities. This need not be the case in every developing city if it is planned for its people rather than their vehicles. This module draws on experience from various cities that have ventured into finding an alternative means of transport and have succeeded in creating more liveable cities for people. The module demonstrates clearly to decision makers that car oriented solutions are not the only way forward in solving the traffic related problems in their city. Further, the module gives successful examples from all over the world on creating liveable and car free public spaces, an essential aspect of a liveable city.
Download here: English 中国 Español 한국의

Training Documents:

bus regulation and planning

Bus Regulation and Planning – Bus Sector Reform
(Richard Meakin)
This document describes the characteristics of bus systems in the cities of developing countries, together with prescriptions for reform and useful case studies. The document will be of interest to government decision-makers, transport professionals, students of transport, and consultants. The document also addresses bus policy issues in the ‘second world’, the former socialist countries. Here the constraints are different. The transport infrastructure is good, but is often comprised of high capital cost electric tram and trolleybus systems. Population density is too low to enable cost-recovery, while affordability of fares is also low.
Download here: EN

Mass transit

Mass Transit
(Lloyd Wright)
This document serves as a course manual for conducting training on choosing between mass transit options in developing cities. The document starts with the basic details of a mass transit system, its importance, and how a city can benefit from various kinds of mass transit systems. This provides tools for planners and decision makers so they can carefully reflect on the options available to their cities and therefore, select and develop the most sustainable mass transit system for their specific case.
Download here: EN

Non-motorized transport

Non-motorised Transport
(Walter Hook)
This training course document discusses an inherent aspect of an integrated transport system that is most of the times neglected: non-motorised transport (NMT). The document explains the importance of NMT in a city and explains design details of planning for pedestrians and bicycles. This training course document provides planners and decision-makers with the tools to develop people-friendly transport systems in their respective cities.
Download here: EN

cycling inclusive policy development
Cycling-inclusive Policy Development: A Handbook
(I-Ce, Netherlands)
GTZ SUTP and the Interface for Cycling Expertise (I-Ce) have joined efforts and developed this training document. This handbook provides detailed information on how to develop cycling-friendly policies and facilities. It can help planners, engineers, community leaders, or advocates to enrich their own ideas about the future traffic and transport system where they live and work.
Download here: EN ES
Bangkok Rapid Transit
Case Study: Bangkok Rapid Transit: BRT System of Bangkok, Thailand, A Short Survey
(Santhosh Kodukula)
After years of contemplation, the city of Bangkok has implemented its first Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system. The system started operation on 29 May 2010. The project is owned by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), maintained by Krungthep Thanakhom, the system manager, and operated by the Bangkok Mass Transit System Public Company Limited (BTSC). This report aims to describe the features of this BRT. The data obtained in this report is through the first hand observations of Mr. Santhosh Kodukula of the GTZ Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) and some feedback from BMA and Krungthep Thanakhom. The system was visited during July 2010.
Download here: EN
Promoting Cycling in Cities
Case Study: An Example of Promoting Cycling in Cities – Components of a High Quality Bicycle Infrastructure, Muenster, Germany, A Short Survey
(Georg Doehn)
This study introduces Muenster’s initiatives to promote cycling and outlines specifications and essentials of its bicycle infrastructure. It provides a case study and orientation for transport planners and policy makers who want to develop similar bicycle-based sustainable urban transport systems in their cities. The document is 22 pages long, full colour pictures.
Download here: EN
Sustainable Mobility Istanbul
Case Study: Sustainable Urban Mobility: The Example of Istanbul
(Maik Hennig)
This study assesses the transport problems Istanbul currently faces and gives an overview of the sustainable transport strategies available to the city. In particular, BRT related measures are outlined. The paper gives orientation for transport planners and policy makers who wish to promote sustainable urban mobility in their cities. The document is 30 pages long, full colour pictures.
Download here: EN
Planning for Cycling in Germany
Case Study: Planning for Cycling in Germany: Cycling Coordinators and Officers
(Nadja Bautz)
Given the current problems most transport systems face, alternative modes of transport need to be resolutely promoted. This paper focuses on cycling and its advantages. In particular, it gives an overview of how planning, organizing, and regulating urban bicycle traffic can be achieved institutionally by cities. It also gives special attention to the role of ‘Cycling Coordinators’ and ‘Cycling Offices’. Cities in developing countries attempting to improve urban cycling are encouraged to consider this as a basis to facilitate their work in this area. The document is 22 pages long, full colour pictures.
Download here: EN

Technical Documents:

BRT Planning Guide

BRT Planning Guide

The Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide is the most comprehensive resource for planning a bus rapid transit (BRT) system, beginning with project preparation all the way through to implementation.
It is the culmination of over five years of efforts to document and improve the state of the art in cost-effective public transport solutions for cities. This edition, expanded to over 800 pages, includes contributions from a wide range of professionals and practitioners with direct experience in designing and implementing BRT systems all over the world.
Beginning with an overview of BRT, the Planning Guide proceeds to give a step-by-step description of the planning process, including operational design, financial modeling, physical design, multi-modal and land use integration, business plan development, communications and marketing, contracting, vehicle and fare collection technology, evaluation, and implementation.
The BRT Planning Guide is intended as a guidance document mainly for planning and engineering professionals. However, others, such as non-governmental organizations, national and regional policymakers, and business groups, will find it a valuable resource as well, when advocating for their issues and finding solutions to the problems that they are addressing.
BRT systems have proven to be catalysts in transforming cities into more livable and human-friendly environments. The appeal of BRT is the ability to deliver a high-quality mass transit system within the budgets of most municipalities, even in low-income cities. Planning and implementing a good BRT system is not easy. This guide aims to make the task a little easier.
The Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide is copyrighted by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP). It is intended for technical and educational use only and may not be used for commercial purposes. It may not be reprinted or modified without the explicit authorization of ITDP.
The BRT Planning Guide is co-edited by Lloyd Wright, Executive Director of Viva; and Walter Hook, Executive Director of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP). It was developed through support from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Global Environment Facility/United Nations Environment Programme, and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH.
Download Here: EN ES

3. Public Bicycle Schemes
Public Bicycle Schemes: Applying the concept in developing cities (examples from India)
(Chhavi Dhingra and Santhosh Kodukula)
Most cities, especially in developing countries, have overlooked the importance of planning for sustainable transport as a precursor to liveable cities. The bicycle has traditionally been an integral feature of mobility of the masses, and even today, a significant share of commuter trips, especially in developing cities, is made on bicycles. Public bicycle sharing or bike rental systems, where users can pick up and drop off bicycles at certain locations in the city and use them for a fixed amount of time and cost, have been around for over a century but are rapidly gaining popularity in cities worldwide as a clean and healthy alternative for personal mobility. The ultimate goal of bike sharing is to expand and integrate cycling into transportation systems, so that it can more readily become a daily transportation mode. A few countries in Asia like China, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and now India have already started to introduce bike sharing programs. The objective of this technical document is to familiarize city authorities, transport planners, businesses, civil society representatives, and policy makers in developing cities with the concept and various components of a public bicycle program, and to provide initial guidance and advice on designing and implementing such a program in Indian cities. This document presents the experience of bike sharing programs from a few cities in Europe and Asia, and analyses the developing country climate (taking India as an example) for encouraging such programs in developing cities. An analysis of the existing bicycle rental programs in India and their challenges, validates and reinforces the document’s objectives. The document also makes practical suggestions and recommendations for developing cities who want to implement such a program.
Download here: EN
9. Measuring Public Transport Performance
Measuring Public Transport Performance- Lessons for developing cities
(Chhavi Dhingra)
How can we make public transport a more attractive and viable mode of travel? What do our riders expect from our services and how can we serve them better? How can we make our cities more sustainable by increasing the modal shares of public transport? What sort of indicators shall we develop to evaluate and benchmark our existing public transport systems? Most developing country cities and public transport authorities face these questions as they take on the big challenge of augmenting and improving public transport services. While doing so, cities need an effective performance measurement system for public transport which helps them assess their progress and define where they want to go in the future. This technical document describes the role that performance measurement can play in public transportation planning and management, the need for developing cities to adopt performance evaluation, and the steps for initiating this. The document also presents examples on performance measurement from various cities across the world and their experiences. The document is 50 pages long and has been reviewed by experts working in this area. The information in this document will be useful to policy makers, analysts, and practitioners involved in urban transport planning and particularly public transport planning and provision in cities, in both developed and developing countries.
Download here: EN

External Links:

Non-Motorised Transportation
Reading List: Non-motorised Transport
Public Transport Integration
Reading List: Public Transport Integration
Public Bicycle Schemes
Reading List: Public Bike Schemes

The National Transportation Library
Large range of transport resources, from US Dept. of Transport

Community Transport
A2B Project – Driving Community Transport into the future
The A2B project is the first ever fully integrated community transport information system, which integrates the three main stake holders involved in community transport.

British Waterways
British Waterways is a public corporation. It manages and cares for more than 2,000 miles (3,220 km) of canals and rivers in England, Scotland, and Wales on behalf of the British people.

Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad Club e.V.


Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals
Founded in 1995, promotes excellence in the emerging professional discipline of pedestrian and bicycle transportation

America Public Transportation Association
National trade association representing transit agencies and operators in the US. Contains a list of BRT projects and links.

Bicycle Policy Audit or BYPAD is a Project funded by th European Commission STEER Programme.

Canadian Cycling Association
Canada’s oldest sport governing body, it was known as the Canadian Wheelmen’s Association when it was founded in 1882.

Carsharing is run as a non-profit educational and promotional site, supporting the Car Sharing Industry in North America.

Cycle Campaign Network
The UK national federation of cycle campaign groups, supporting cycling locally, regionally, nationally, and in Europe.

European Cyclists Federation

Children on the Move
A convenient place on the Web to share and develop ideas and materials on matters involving children and the ways in which they can and could move around in their communities in their daily lives.

European Metropolitan Transport Authorities
EMTA brings together the authorities responsible for public transport in the main European cities.

Transportation and Community and System Preservation Program
The Transportation, Community, and System Preservation (TCSP) Program is a comprehensive initiative of research and grants to investigate the relationships between transportation, community, and system preservation plans

Federal Transit Administration
A variety of resources for transit planning. Includes the National Transit Library and databases.

Access Exchange International Portal
A general website about public transportation in Germany (German language)

The Straphangers Campaign
The Straphangers Campaign is a voice for New York’s nearly 7 million daily subway and bus riders.

Urban Transport Pricing
Urban Transport Pricing is one of the key issues to be addressed in European transport. It offers an important tool in achieving a reduction in urban road traffic and the associated congestion and environmental nuisances.

Dept. of Planning & Infrastructure, Western Australia
Reports on bicycle use and advocacy, including the Bicycle User Group manual.

International Association of Public Transport
UITP is the world-wide association of urban and regional passenger transport operators, their authorities and suppliers.

Victoria Transport Policy Institute
The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative and practical solutions to transportation problems.

Cycling-Inclusive Policy Development

Cycle sharing – Definition
1: Cycle share or sharing, public bicycles, bike share, Vélolib, etc. short-term bicycle rental available at unattended urban locations; 2: bicycle transit (definition from the bike-sharing blog).

Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities – AASHTO
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1999

Cambridge Cycling Campaign
Glossary of Cycle Campaigning.

The web site that goes with the book. Carfree Cities proposes a delightful solution to the vexing problem of urban automobiles.

Land Transport Authority, Singapore

Transport For London

Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA)
An overview of traffic and transport projects under the authority of the BMA.

Glossary Of Acronyms, Definitions, and Transportation Related Web Sites
Tompkins County (New York)

Bikeway Facility Design Manual
Minnesota Department of Transport

Glossary of Bicycle Transportation Terms – Ibike
International Bicycle Fund

Long Range Transportation Plan – Lewis Clark Valley MPO
September 2006

Loudoun County Bicycle and Pedestrian Mobility Master Plan
Public Meeting, November 13, 2002. Glossary of Terms

Non-motorized Transportation Planning Resource Book
Mayor’s Task Force on Walking and Bicycling, City of Lansing, Michigan. Spring 2007

Non-Motorized Transportation Plan – City of Bainbridge Island

Winnipeg Active Transportation Study, Appendix H

Pedestrian Facilities Guidebook
Incorporating Pedestrians Into Washington’s Transportation System.

San Antonio Glossary of Infrastructure Terms

Seattle Government Transportation ROW Manual Glossary

Smart Growth
This term enjoys considerable popularity in the US and Canada, where it is often associated with movements such as New Urbanism.

Sustainable Society
This term, coined by the Brundtland Commission, defined sustainable development as that which “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.“

TDM Encyclopaedia -Victoria Transport Policy Institute

Queen Creek Bicycle Glossary
(Appendix A – Glossary of Terms and Definitions)

BRT Planning

Bus Rapid Transit China
BRT China is a Mandarin language web site devoted to providing BRT information and updates on projects in China.

Access Exchange International
A non-governmental organisation promoting accessible public transport for persons with disabilities and seniors in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

Transportation Research Board (TRB)
A division of the US National Research Council which acts as an independent advisor to the US government. TRB seeks to promote innovation and progress in transport through research.

BRT Alameda and Contra Counties (AC Transit), US

BRT Adelaide, Australia

Associação Nacional de Transportes Públicos (ANTP)
The Brazilian National Association for Public Transport provides information on a range of sustainable transport topics, including BRT. The Portuguese web site includes access to a range of publications.

BRT Bangkok

Bus Rapid Transit UK (BRT-UK)
An association dedicated to the sharing of information about evolving bus based rubber tyred rapid transit technology. BRT-UK is a particuliarly key resource for news and publications related to BRT in the United Kingdom.

Bus Rapid Transit Central
This site holds articles on BRT and links to technical information on various BRT systems.

The Commons
An “Open Society Sustainability Initiative” developed by Eric Britton and EcoPlan International. The site provides information and offers the opportunity for cities and individuals to exchange experiences.

Energy Foundation
The China Sustainable Energy Program of the Energy Foundation has done much to spread awareness of BRT in the context of Chinese cities. Of particular note is the development of the China Sustainable Transportation Centre.

US Federal Transit Administration
This site provides an overview of the USFTA’s national BRT programme as well as information on the activities underway in each of the participating cities. The site also provides a number of useful links to technical documents.

Bus Rapid Transit Policy Center
Developed by the Breakthrough Technologies Institute, this is a US-based organisation that seeks to provide key background information on the BRT option.

Metro Magazine
Metro Magazine’s website hosts a BRT home page that provides a range of information including updates on recent BRT news stories.

National Bus Rapid Transit Institute
Based at the University of South Florida (US), the National BRT Institute is an information clearinghouse on BRT. The site includes BRT publications, presentations, video, and images from both US and international projects.

Transport Roundtable Australia
This site provides useful information and articles both on general BRT issues as well as specific links to Australian systems in cities such as Brisbane and Adelaide. The site also provides information on the “Smart Urban Transport” conferences.

Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP)
TCRP is a component of the US Transportation Research Board (TRB). TCRP has produced several key studies on topics related to BRT, including a compendium of BRT case studies and planning guidances.