Vehicles and Fuels

A commonly accepted and practiced means of tackling air pollution is the usage of clean fuels and technologies. Various cities are on the look-out for resources that will provide a better description of the topic and show them the broad spectrum of opportunities available. The purpose of this theme is to address the need of such decision makers.

In these modules, environmental and industry experts share their experience and knowledge on topics related to vehicles and fuels, providing key information to policy-makers so that they can make appropriate decisions for their city’s transport fleet. This theme includes the topic of two- and three-wheelers (an issue of grave importance in the developing world). Cities that are aiming to be “smarter” at transport systems can find the module on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in this theme quite useful. Other viable options are addressed in the module on Eco-driving.

Sourcebook Modules:


4a. Cleaner Fuels and Vehicle Technologies
(Michael Walsh; Reinhard Kolke, Umweltbundesamt)
Cleaner fuels and vehicle technologies are key components of any sustainable urban transport system. This module, from two leading experts on the subject, provides a detailed evaluation of cleaner fuels and technologies which can be applied in developing cities. Fuel options are evaluated based on cost and practicality. The role of fuel quality standards is also described.
Download here: English 中国 Español


4b. Inspection & Maintenance and Roadworthiness
(Reinhard Kolke, UBA)
Another key component of a sustainable transport system is an in-use vehicle testing system. This is essential to ensure that vehicles are properly maintained, from both an environmental (emissions) and safety (roadworthiness) perspective. This module provides advice on the types of inspection and maintenance systems appropriate for a developing country and how developing cities can develop and implement an effective I&M system.
Download here: English 中国 tiếng Việt


4c. Two- and Three-Wheelers
(Jitendra Shah, World Bank; N.V. Iyer, Bajaj Auto)
Motorcycles are a dominant form of transport in many cities, especially throughout Asia. This module first describes how this reliance may be unsustainable. The bulk of the module then considers the problem of emissions from two-stroke two-and three-wheelers in developing cities, emphasising the experience in Asia. It provides policy advice on how to address this problem, considering several case studies.
Download here: tiếng Việt


4d. Natural Gas Vehicles
(MVV InnoTec)
Written primarily from a European perspective, this decision-maker’s guide to natural gas vehicles is nevertheless relevant to developing cities which are considering use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It provides a solid grounding in all the basic concepts of natural gas vehicles, including their operation, economic aspects, environmental aspects, and refueling infrastructure, among others. Case studies from developing cities, including a detailed consideration of experience in Delhi (provided by CSE India), are provided.
Download here: English 中国 Español Bahasa Indonesia


4e. Intelligent Transport Systems
(Phil Sayeg, TRA; Phil Charles, University of Queensland)
As technology has developed in various areas, the transport sector has also benefited. These technologies used collectively for achieving safer, affordable and environmentally friendly transportation systems are called Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). The objective of this module is to display to decision makers the various advantages of different ITS measures and how it could be implemented in their cities‘ urban transport systems for best outcomes.
Download here: English 中国 Español Український tiếng Việt


4f. Eco-Driving
(VTL; Manfred Breithaupt, Oliver Eberz, GIZ)
This module addresses the concept of economical and ecological driving for developing cities. While public transport is the only affordable means of transit that benefits most of society, the quality of such service is often undesirable. This module shows how costs can be reduced (and efficiency increased) with specific methods of driving behaviour. The module addresses various aspects pertaining to driving patterns and the advantages of eco-driving and also gives clear examples of how these targets have been (and in the future can be) achieved.
Download here: English 中国 Español

External Links:

Electric Mobility
Reading List: Electric Mobility

Clean Air Initiative
Site established in early 2004 with strong coverage of vehicle and fuel and AQM resources, especially in Asia and Latin America.

Focus on fleet industry services for transportation, energy, and environmental projects (US)

The National Transportation Library
Large range of transport resources, from US Dept. of Transport

Walsh CarLines
Information on motor vehicle emissions and related subjects.

Clean Technologies Information Pool
Focus on technologies for cleaner buses, trucks, and fuels. Part of CAI – Latin America.

Strengthening Vehicle Inspection & Maintenance
Documentation and presentations from the Chongqing ADB workshop on I/M, 2001.

ADB Vehicle Emissions Reduction
Resources on mobile sources of air pollution in Asia.

Biodiesel Encyclopedia


China Motorcycle


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Many resources, particularly strong on AQM. Also advocacy, fuels, TDM, and global warming resources.

International Energy Agency
Multinational agency dealing with energy issues.

Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association
Various publications on fuel and vehicle related issues.

World Business Council for Sustainable Development
WBCSD Sustainable Mobility program, includes e-bulletins, workshops, and consultations, with presentations and reports available for download.

Union of Concerned Scientists – Clean Vehicles
Coverage of advanced vehicles, cars & SUVs, and trucks & buses

The Federal Environmental Agency (UBA)
The UBA division of Transport and the Environment is a leading agency on transport & environment related issues.

Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles
A partnership established at the WSSD in Sept. 2002 to reduce vehicular air pollution in developing countries through the promotion of clean fuels and vehicles.

UK DOT – Roads, Vehicles and Road Safety
Reports on road transport related topics.

Fuel Prices

Affordability and Subsidies in Public Urban Transport: What Do We Mean, What Can Be Done?
This paper reviews the arguments used to justify subsidy policies in public urban transport and finally substantiates that more effort should be devoted to improve the targeting of public urban transport subsidies. World Bank Working Paper No. 4440

EST goes EAST Clearing House (EgE)
EgE is a joint web initiative by the Austrian Lebensministerium, CEI, OECD, and UNEP(ROE). An information network, its primary goal is to promote Environmentally Sustainable Transport in Central and Eastern Europe.

Impact of a Lower Oil Subsidy on Indonesian Macroeconomic Performance, Agricultural Sector and Poverty Incidences: a Recursive Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis
The study’s objective is to analyse the impact of reducing the fuel subsidy on macroeconomic variables, the agricultural sector, and income distribution. PEP Working Paper – Oktaviani et al., 2007.

Annual Statistical Supplement and User’s Guide 2003
Statistical data.

Ghana: Evaluating the Fiscal and Social Costs of Increases in Domestic Fuel Prices
This paper reflects the analysis of the fiscal and social implications of domestic fuel price increases in Ghana with specific focus on the resulting impacts and distribution issues.

How to set up a road fund?
A detailed description of how to set up a road fund can be found on the website of the Sub-Saharan African Transport Policy Program (SSATP).

The Challenge of Higher Oil Prices
This research paper gives helpful advice on how to adjust to higher oil prices in Asia. It further elaborates on why oil prices are so high and it proposes policy recommendations. ADB Asian Development Outlook 2005.

The Impact of Higher Oil Prices on Low Income Countries and the Poor
This paper is designed to provide a brief overview on the impact of current oil price increases on low income countries and poorer households. World Bank Working Paper – Robert Bacon, 2005.

Understanding the Factors That Influence the Retail Price of Gasoline
A US-focused work which presents detailed information on the factors that influence the price of gasoline and, to the extent possible, why those factors have developed. Specifically, the work explains how gasoline is made and distributed in the US.

GTZ – Fuel Prices
“International Fuel Prices” is a long-time effort of GTZ (German Technical Cooperation) on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) to provide decision-makers with data on fuel prices on a global scale.

PETROLEUM PRODUCT PRICING IN INDIA – Where have all the subsidies gone?
Petroleum product pricing in India is frequently seen as a black hole of subsidies. Economists and oil companies complain about the impacts those subsidies have on public finances, financial performance of oil companies, and demand-side management.

Analysis of the Impact of High Oil Prices on the Global Economy
This paper reviews how oil prices affect the macro-economy and assesses the extent to which the economies of OECD and developing countries remain vulnerable to a sustained period of higher oil prices.

The Structure of the Oil Market and Causes of High Prices
This paper examines how crude oil, futures, and petroleum product markets interact to determine market outcomes. IMF Working Paper – Pelin Berkmen et al., 2005.

Fuel Price Subsidies in Gabon: Fiscal Costs and Distributional Impact
This paper looks at the fiscal cost and distributional impact of implicit fuel price subsidies in Gabon, where fuel prices have remained largely unchanged since 2002. IMF Working Paper – Moataz El Said and Daniel Leigh, 2006.

Domestic Petroleum Product Prices and Subsidies: Recent Developments and Reform Strategies
This paper reviews recent developments in the pass-through of international to domestic petroleum product prices, in the different fuel pricing regimes, and in fuel subsidies in a range of emerging market and developing economies. IMF Working Paper.

The Impact of Higher Oil Prices on the Global Economy
This paper comments on the extensive discussion of the potential impact of higher oil prices and focuses on affected sectors. IMF Working Paper – Michael Mussa, 2000.

Issues in Domestic Petroleum Pricing in Oil-Producing Countries
This paper discusses issues relating to the domestic pricing of petroleum in oil-producing countries. Moreover, the paper argues, petroleum subsidies are inefficient and inequitable.

The Magnitude and Distribution of Fuel Subsidies Evidence from Bolivia, Ghana, Jordan, Mali and Sri Lanka
This paper identifies the issues that need to be discussed when analyzing the fiscal and social costs of fuel subsidies using examples from analyses recently undertaken for five countries.

OPEC: Where Oil Markets Indeed are “Well Supplied
This paper briefly compares and analyses fuel price policies of OPEC members. JEC Research Report, 2007.

Biofuels – palm oil
Information about palm oil biofuel.